Spawning sockeye salmon are seen making their way up the Adams River in Roderick Haig-Brown Provincial Park near Chase, B.C. Tuesday, Oct. 14, 2014. THE CANADIAN PRESS/Jonathan Hayward

Impact of diluted bitumen on young sockeye salmon deadly, says Guelph study

A spill of diluted bitumen puts the survival of young salmon at risk even if the fish end up in clean water following exposure to the oil product.

A spill of diluted bitumen puts the survival of young salmon at risk even if the fish end up in clean water following exposure to the oil product, says new research from the University of Guelph.

Researchers said they made the conclusions after exposing four groups of sockeye salmon eggs to four different amounts of water soluble diluted bitumen and observed the young fish after the eggs hatched for up to eight months in clean water.

“We saw a lot of changes during the exposure,” said Sarah Alderman, a post-doctorate researcher at the University of Guelph’s department of integrative biology. “We found a whole suite of effects from delayed hatching to increased mortality, increased developmental deformities and changes in growth and energy stores in the fish.”

She said almost 50 per cent of the salmon exposed to the highest amount of bitumen died during the first two months after they were moved to clean water and observed for up to eight months.

“We found for about the first two months after moving them to clean water we had really high mortality even though they are not being exposed to the dilbit (diluted bitumen) anymore,” said Alderman. “We saw mortality as high as 50 per cent during that two-month period. Every day there’s more dead and more dead.”

The research was published this month in the peer-reviewed journal Aquatic Toxicology.

About 1,000 sockeye eggs were used in each of the four diluted bitumen exposure tests, with the amounts ranging from four micrograms of diluted bitumen per litre of water to 35 micrograms per litre to 100 micrograms per litre, Alderman said. The fourth group of eggs was not exposed to the product.

Alderman said the largest exposure amount of 100 micrograms per litre reflected the level of oil products measured along the shoreline of the Gulf of Mexico following the Deep Water Horizon spill in 2010.

She said mortality among the unexposed sockeye eggs was less than two per cent.

Related: VIDEO: Close to 6 million late-run sockeye heading for Shuswap

Related: Trans Mountain pipeline: Is it worth the risk?

Related: Bitumen no worse than other crude, Ottawa says

In the exposed fish, the researchers also found changes in brain development and overall performance levels in the young sockeye that survived the diluted bitumen exposure, said Alderman.

“It’s really affecting multiple body systems in lots of different ways.”

The results from the study come as federal and provincial governments, First Nations, environmental groups and energy companies are locked in a contentious debate over the environmental and economic viability of the proposed expansion of the Trans Mountain pipeline from northern Alberta to Burnaby, B.C.

In a recent decision overturning the approval of the pipeline expansion, the Federal Court of Appeal said the National Energy Board unjustifiably excluded the consideration of marine shipping of bitumen in its approval process. The court said the board failed to consider its obligations under the Species at Risk Act in relation to southern resident killer whales.

First Nations said during the energy board’s hearings that there were research and information gaps about a spill of diluted bitumen in a marine environment. The Federal Court ruling said there was nothing in the approval process that showed the government addressed those concerns.

Bitumen has the consistency of crumbling asphalt and doesn’t flow freely like oil. It needs to be diluted with another petroleum product to allow it to flow through pipelines.

The federal government agreed last June to buy the existing pipeline, the expansion project and terminals from Kinder Morgan Canada for $4.5 billion after the company threatened to walk away from the Trans Mountain expansion project in April.

Alderman said the exposure levels of diluted bitumen were modelled on prospective amounts from potential pipeline spills. She said the research points to the need to have clean up measures in place.

“There’s a lot of dilbit being transported in pipelines and most of it is transported very safely,” Alderman said. “But as this industry expands the potential for spills increases. We’re working to understand what to expect if it does happen.”

The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers did not comment on the Guelph research, but in a statement it said it is part of a separate and ongoing independent study to “provide a better understanding of the behaviour of oil in the unlikely event of a spill on water.”

Last year, Alderman conducted research that concluded tiny amounts of diluted bitumen weakens the chances of migrating salmon to make it back to the rivers and streams of their birth to spawn.

Exposure to diluted bitumen hinders the swimming performance of salmon, causes their heart muscle to stiffen and damages their kidneys, her research found.

Alderman’s research is funded by the federal government’s National Contaminants Advisory Group, which is part of the Department of Fisheries and Oceans.

Dirk Meissner, The Canadian Press

Like us on Facebook and follow us on Twitter.

Just Posted

Survivor of near-drowning in Elk Valley lake viewing life through new eyes

“If I died that day, the baby wouldn’t know his dad,” said 31-year-old Mariano Santander-Melo.

Cannabis stores in Fernie get green light, open in one month

Two cannabis stores in Fernie could be open for non-medical sales in… Continue reading

Annual Columbia Basin Culture tour coming up Aug 10 and 11

There are locations across the region participating

Structure fire near Elko quickly contained, spreading prevented

A quick response by local firefighters today prevented the spread of a… Continue reading

Stetski talks up NDP election platform

NDP candidate for Kootenay-Columbia riding outlines election ‘commitments’ to Canadian voters

Joaquin ‘El Chapo’ Guzman sentenced to life in prison

Experts say he will likely wind up at the federal government’s Supermax prison in Florence, Colorado

Olympic softball qualifier gets $150K boost from provincial government

2019 Americas Qualifier to be held in Surrey from Aug. 25-Sept. 1

Gas price inquiry questions Trans Mountain capacity, company denies collusion

The first of up to four days of oral hearings in the inquiry continue in Vancouver

‘Benzos’ and fentanyl a deadly cocktail causing a growing concern on B.C. streets

Overdoses caused by benzodiazepines can’t be reversed with opioid-overdose antidote naloxone

Will you be celebrating national hotdog day with any of these crazy flavours?

The popularity of hotdogs spans generations, cultures

Former home of accused Penticton shooter vandalized

Ex-wife of man who is accused of murdering four people had her house vandalized

‘Beyond the call’: Teen in police custody gets birthday surprise by B.C. Mountie

Unusual celebration started when Staff Sgt. Paul Vadik went to visit the teen in his Coquitlam cell

Thunderstorms forecast across B.C.

Environment Canada has issued a thunderstorm watch for B.C.’s central Interior

B.C. mom to go to Europe court in hopes of getting alleged abducted daughter back

Tasha Brown alleges her estranged wife abducted their daughter Kaydance Etchells in 2016

Most Read